Paradigm High School
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Library Media Center
Mission Statement


At Paradigm High School our mission is to ensure that all students and staff are effective users of ideas and information within the library media center while promoting citizenship, accountability, and life-long learning. We encourage liberal arts education helping students to read, write and think. We strive to instill in our students a love for reading and an excitement for classical books.


Paradigm High School Media Center
Philosophy

Critical Thinking
Students will use a variety of problem solving strategies to gather, analyze, interpret, communicate, and apply information in the library.

Students will learn and use a variety of technological means to identify information needs, access and present information, solve problems, make informed decisions, and expand knowledge using the Big6 problem solving strategy.

Students will use the library to generate new and creative ideas by taking considered risks in a variety of contexts.

Students will use information obtained in the library accurately.

Literacy

Students will consistently express their ideas and answers through effective written and spoken communication.

Students will use the library to develop effective reading and listening skills.

Students will use the library to pursue information in a variety of formats related to personal enrichment including an appreciation of literature and other creative expressions of information.

Students will adopt habits and attitudes of life-long learning.

Citizenship

Students will demonstrate individual responsibility, mutual respect, integrity, and dependability in the library media center.

Students will adhere to school rules, policies, and procedures in the library media center.

Students will work as productive and collaborative members of a team to identify and achieve desired results when working together in the library media center.

Students will practice ethical behavior in regard to information and information technology.

Students will demonstrate the ability to explore the ideas and achievement of a variety of people from many cultures and times.


Paradigm High School Philosophy of the School Media Center


Paradigm High adopts the mission statement of the Utah Library Media/Information Literacy Core Curriculum which is to ensure that all students are effective users of ideas and information in all formats.*

The function of the library in our school is to make available to students, teachers, administration, and staff, materials and equipment that support the curriculum as established by Paradigm High School. Making media center resources an extension of the classroom learning experience and integrating library skills into classroom instruction is our main goal. Library media skills are based on the Big6 that is defined in the Utah State Library Core Curriculum. The library media coordinator is a professional partner with teachers in planning instructional units that utilize the resources of the media center and develop self-reliant learners.

Selecting, acquiring, and organizing a well-balanced and current collection of print and non-print materials that reflect the curriculum, the diverse cultures, learning abilities and styles of our student population is a major purpose of the library. Simple production of materials and student use of computers in the library area are directed by the media specialist. Media center materials that are used for reference and circulation are available for students, faculty and school staff members.

The media staff continually develops the collection of print and non-print materials along with equipment to keep it usable, current, and responsive to curriculum needs. A major goal is to effectively incorporate current Utah school library media programs for information problem solving competencies in every grade level. The media center embraces new technologies as they become available, are affordable, and meet the goals of the school curriculum.

Evaluation of the library program is conducted on a yearly basis by the media coordinator and the directors of Paradigm High School. Evaluation will be done on the collection’s currency and usefulness for curriculum, cooperative instructional activities with teachers, development of research skills by students, and general media center operations.

This media center supports the Library Bill of Right and Students’ Right to Read. The media coordinator will accept Requests for Reconsideration forms concerning challenged materials. In the event of challenges, a review board will be called composed of the library committee. This review board will handle complaints on materials based on a completed reconsideration form.

Strict adherence to copyright laws is supported by the media center. The media coordinator will work with the principal to inform students and staff of copyright adherence in all circumstances for all materials.

The school media center is an integral part of the school, its curriculum and programs. It is a friendly and open facility organized to promote the teacher and student in the learning process.

*The Utah Library Media/Information Literacy Secondary Core Curriculum mission statement is drawn from the mission statement of Information Power: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs, Chicago, American Library Association, and Washington D.C., Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 1988.

POLICES

Policies:
1. The Media Center will be open from 7:30-3:30 every school day and at other
times if arrangements are made, to meet the needs of students and staff.
2. Reference materials are available for library use only unless indicated otherwise.
3. All other books will be checked out on a two-week basis. The number of books
that may be checked out will depend upon the needs of the student.
4. Class groups will have to be accompanied by the teacher, and pre-scheduling for the Media Center must be arranged.
5. Students as responsible citizens will pay for any damage to books or lost books.
6. Students are responsible to replace media items where they belong as they are used.

The Library Media Committee:
The library media committee exists to promote library media programs, uphold and approve policies, and assist in collection development. One teacher from each grade level and the administrator of School are asked to serve on this committee. The library media specialist serves as the chair of the committee. If needed, one parent representative will be asked to serve on this committee.
Check-Out Policies:
Regularly circulated books may be checked-out for a two week period of time with an additional two weeks granted for renewal. Reference materials as indicated may be checked-out overnight, but need to be returned prior to school beginning the next day. Audiovisual materials and equipment are checked out to faculty members only. Students may preview materials and use equipment within the media center.
Lost/Damaged Materials:
Library media patrons are expected to reimburse the library media center the purchase price of lost materials and/or reasonable rates for damaged materials. If the lost materials are found within the same school year, the reimbursement is refunded, less the fine accumulated prior to the declaration of the loss. Fines for lost materials found after the adjournment of the school year cannot be refunded.
Fines and Lost Book Funds:
Funds collected from fines and lost books are used to purchase new titles or replace those titles which are still relevant to the collection or supplies as needed. Fines are collected during the school year.

Legal Responsibility:
As the governing body of the school district the Board of Education shall be legally responsible for the selection and approval of all printed and published materials used in the school district. As the policy-making body, the Board of Education delegates authority to the professional staff of each school for the selection of textbooks, library resources, and other instructional materials. The library media specialist/teacher is, therefore, responsible for the selection and acquisition of all materials for the library media center, and the library media
committee may review proposed purchases if desired.


Paradigm High General Collections


YOUNG ADULT COLLECTION
INTRODUCTION
These collections are bought for young adults, aged 14 to 18. However, any age category can be only a guide in helping patrons choose from the large number and variety of materials available.
These materials are free of charge.

BOOKS FOR SPECIAL COLLECTIONS
Sometimes our students with special needs need information on a subject they may not want to ask for help in finding. For this reason a number of titles on a variety of subjects have been brought together into a High Interest (HI) collection that makes finding the information easier. Books include both fiction and information for a range of grade levels.

FICTION
This collection has books that will appeal to a wide cross-section of young adult readers. Many series titles (e.g. science fiction, fantasy) are bought for the fiction collection and in the Paradigm Library some of them are separately shelved.

The fiction collection is one of the most popular areas of the Paradigm Library, providing an excellent source of recreation and enlightenment. The RJH Library aims to have a comprehensive collection of the works of all major English language fiction writers and non-English authors in translation.

· There is a core list of these authors and this is checked annually so that at least one copy of each item on the list is maintained
· Genre fiction (mysteries, adventure stories, sagas, science fiction, etc.) and contemporary novels of a readable accessible nature are bought for the Paradigm Library.
· The Paradigm Library will attempt to keep a copy of each title in a series but often, due to attrition and to the increasing reluctance of publishers to keep items in print, this is impossible
· Hardback is the preferred format for reasons of durability but increasingly fiction is published in a trade paperback format.
· The Paradigm Library fiction collection contains:
classic authors
authors in constant or fluctuating demand
multicultural material
fiction to support the Utah Core Curriculum
high interest both fiction and non-fiction
non-fiction
Abridged novels (such as the Reader’s Digest condensed books) and novelty books (pop-up novels, novels designed as gifts, perfumed books, etc.) are not purchased.


NONFICTION (Information books)
The aim of this collection is to support the individual young adult’s curiosity. School curriculum requirements form a part of this collection but it is the role, firstly, of the school library and, secondly, the National Library, to meet classroom needs.

The nonfiction collection aims to meet the needs of all customers and contains timely, accurate information, in a variety of formats, supporting individual and community interests. Both general and more specialized materials offer as wide a range of opinions and viewpoints as possible keeping the classical flair offered at Paradigm High School.


INTERNET
atioInternet sites selected for students can be found on PIONEER, a database sponsored by the State of Utah. User ID: pioneer, password: knowledge


PICTURE BOOKS
The diversity of this collection allows children to be introduced to a wide range of experiences, settings, themes, feelings, situations, characters, art and language. Picture books are particularly suitable for:

· reading aloud to groups
· sharing on a one-to-one basis
· character education
.

GRAPHIC NOVELS
Graphic novels blend words and images to create a, often complex, narrative. They are a popular part of the collection.

LIFE SKILLS
This is a collection of information books on topics of particular interest to young adults, including personal and social issues. It does not include school curriculum materials. Because the collection is mainly for browsing, the books are arranged in broad subject areas.

BESTSELLER COLLECTION – Early Bird Readers Book Club and New Release Collections
The Bestseller Collection is designed to provide fast access to the most popular books of the moment for customers. These books are prominently displayed in
The Paradigm Library so those customers who do not have the time to browse the shelves can get books they want immediately.
The items in this collection are:

mostly popular fiction and well known or
bestselling nonfiction titles. Some titles in the
collection need not be particularly new as there is
a core of popular titles perennially asked for

customers are able to make the choice between
choosing a book in this collection or requesting
it in the usual way from the main collection

there will be no material in the Bestseller Collection
that is not available in the borrowing collection


BIOGRAPHIES
The biography is a distinct literary form that has a large and enduring popularity.
In the Paradigm Library there is a separate Biography collection. The criteria for a biography being put into this collection are readability and appeal to the lay reader. A scholarly biography of a person emphasizing their work almost solely and not easily read by someone without a specialized knowledge of the subject
will still be located with the particular subject area and not in the Biography collection. Biographies of composers, scientists, film stars or directors, which focus wholly on their work, often fall into this category.

AUDIBLE BOOKS

Audible books are available in the library for students who have an IEP or 504 Special Education plan. This allows them to listen to a book that might be more difficult than their reading ability allows. The Special Education Department has MP3 Players for the students in need. These students will give a 100 dollar deposit refundable at the time of the return of the device at the end of the year. Our intention is to have audible books eventually available for the student body.

REFERENCE
This collection provides the most up-to-date information on a wide variety of subjects. So that the information needs of as many young adults as possible can be met for research.
Materials include:

· encyclopedias
· atlases
· dictionaries
· biographies
· almanacs
· information files for specific subjects pertaining to the Utah State Core

Reference works are typically encyclopedias, dictionaries, almanacs, atlases, indexes, directories, bibliographies and similar information resources. We do not lend these books as they are in constant demand and it is more helpful to have them always available to be used in the library. Some titles are included as both borrowing and reference copies. Reference books provide current information covering all subject fields and are always available for customer use.

any item in the collection may be designated reference
expensive or high demand titles may be made reference to ensure that a copy will always be available for consultation
in the Paradigm Library these reference books are gathered together in one place
new reference titles are added each year, including new editions of existing titles
when a reference book is superseded by a new edition, the previous edition may be made available for loan if it still contains useful material.
The Paradigm Library has a commitment to providing the best on-line information resources within the constraints of its budget.




Paradigm High School
Library Media Program
Acquisition (Selection) Policy and Procedure


The Riverview Jr. High Library Media Program follows the acquisition policy and procedures as outlined by the Murray School District.

Acquisition of materials at the Riverview Jr. high Library Media Center also considers the following:

  • Assessing the needs of the school
  • Gathering information from district and professional sources to assure quality purchases
  • Using an advisory committee to aid in the selection of materials
  • Compare vendors for the best prices
  • Purchasing MARC records when cost effective

For school orders:

  • Follow the acquisition process
  • Fill out a purchase order request with attached information regarding order
  • Obtain approval from the school administrator
  • Purchase order is sent to Scott Jones for approval and then give to Diane Hansen for payment from the Library Fine Account or Paradigm High expense account.

Paradigm High Processing and Cataloging New Acquisitions

Books

  1. Check the Invoice and complete paperwork.
  2. Stamp book on right side of back and front inside covers,
  3. Add barcode if necessary.
  4. Add spine label if necessary.
  5. Tape bar code and spine label in place if necessary.

Computer Records


  1. Upload records from computer disc OR import records from Follett OR Library of Congress OR create a new record using Follett Cataloguing program (Chapters 25 “Using the Easy Editor” and Chapter 26 “Using the MARC Editor,” p. 259-286.
  2. Delete any cancelled books uploaded from the computer disc.
  3. Add Local Call # to each record. Check Salt Lake County Library records for call numbers, or use Dewey Decimal Classification book.
  4. Save the record.
  5. Add the copy to the record.
  6. Scan barcode.
  7. Add Call #.
  8. Add $2.00 to the amount of the book for processing.
  9. Add vendor source (optional)
  10. Add budget source (optional)
  11. Save the file.


Paradigm High
Library Media Center
Selection Policy and Procedure


The Paradigm High Library Media Center strives to contain materials to support the Utah State Core Curriculum, the Paradigm High “A Different Kind of Think” philosophy, and needs of the students. Materials in the center enrich and support the curriculum and meet the needs and specific interests of the students and further their development in factual knowledge, literary appreciation, aesthetic values, and ethical standards. Materials should be age-appropriate and provide a background of information, which will enable students to make intelligent judgments in their daily life. Materials in the center present opposing sides of controversial issues allowing students to develop critical reading and thinking skills under guidance. Materials also conform to the community’s generally accepted norms and values.
The Library Media Center provides materials on all appropriate levels of difficulty, in a variety of formats, and with diversity of appeal, presenting many points of view. When selecting materials from the collection, students should choose in conformity with their own values, interests, and abilities under the watchful care of parents, guardians, and teachers.
Internet and other on-line resources, on the other hand, are not subject to the Materials and Selection Policy. Use of the Internet represents an understanding on the part of the student and their guardian that the Paradigm High School does not control information available via the Internet except to reasonably filter sites to prevent as much as possible, inappropriately harmful, violent, or sexual content from being displayed. Students must have on file with Paradigm High a current permission form signed by a parent or guardian in order to access the Internet while at school.

Selection Policy
The Paradigm High School is responsible for all materials in the library media center. While materials are selected by certified library personnel with input from library assistants, mentors, school professionals, and students, the final decisions for the selection of materials lie with the certified library media specialists and it’s committee.

Selection Criteria
Learning resources should be selected for their strengths and their compliance with the above stated Materials Selection Policy. The following criteria can guide but not limit the selection of materials:
· Contribution to the curriculum and the student learning outcomes
· Relevance to the interests and learning abilities of students
· Literary and artistic excellence
· Lasting importance or significance to a field of knowledge
· Favorable review in standard selection sources
· Favorable preview or examination of materials by personnel
· Currency or timeliness of materials
· Suitability of format and appearance for intended use
· Appropriate quality, durability, and variety of format

Gifts
A donation form is provided for the processing of gifts. While gifts are gratefully accepted, items deemed inappropriate will be respectfully declined or deselected.

Petition for Adoption
Book Title for Consideration:
Author _

Copyright Year
Using the following criteria, describe why you believe this title should be taught in the Murray District Schools and added to the District Approved List. Please provide three copies to the department chairperson who will identify faculty members to read them and agree or disagree with this person.
Explain how this title supports the language Arts Core Curriculum?

*Referring to the criteria below, describe how this title addresses adolescent development in an appropriate manner

Are the instructional and reading levels of this title appropriate?

How does this title relate to and support current curriculum mapping? (e. g. themes, topics, and skill areas both within the grade level and/or related to other content areas)

Does the content of this title conform to the community’s accepted norms and values? If you have questions about any of the content, list them along with suggestions of ways they can be dealt with in a classroom setting.

List any available reviews of the title from acknowledges sources, such as School Library Journal, NCTE, Horn, Kirkus, Booklist, Wilson’s, Book Links, etc. (Your school librarian will be glad to help).

*Adolescent Development Tasks/Issues

1. Sexual awakening and experience (accept own body; relationships with members of own/opposite sex)
2. Emotional Development
3. Family Relationships (parents, siblings, etc.)
4. Social Adjustment and Delinquency
5. Schools, Students, and Teachers
6. Religion and Values
7. Initiation and Identity


Reviewer’s name
. Do you agree this title should be taught in Paradigm High School? Explain.






Signature



Reviewer’s name . Do you agree this title should be taught in the Paradigm High School? Explain.










Signature



Reviewer’s name
. Do you agree this title should be taught in the Paradigm High School? Explain.








Signature



Paradigm High
Reconsideration Policy


Philosophy
Paradigm High has a responsibility to provide a wide range of information to students. The School Bill of Rights shall serve as a guide in controversial issues.
Procedures

  • Whenever a complaint is registered, a Requests for Reevaluation of Materials must be filled out and sent to the school’s director. The form must be signed and the individual(s) placing the objection identified.
  • The school’s director will appoint a committee to consider the criticism. It will include: the library media specialist, at least one teacher, a school administrator and two parents (not related) or the library committee.
  • Materials will be judged in total, not on objectionable words or phrases only.
  • A report determining the disposition of the matter, along with a minority opinion (if any) , will be presented to the principal by committee.
  • The principal will enforce the action recommended by the committee’s report.
  • A copy of the decision will be sent to the person(s) registering the complaint.
  • No changes regarding the status of the book in question will be made until this process is completed.
  • If a review of the decision is requested by the complainant(s), a district reevaluation committee will be appointed to review the decision.

Instructions to the Evaluation Committee
Study thoroughly all materials referred to you and read all available reviews. Freedom of inquiry is vital to education in a democracy. Any restriction of that freedom should be based on an identifiable danger to the student or others, based on broadly perceived values of the community. Censorship is a dangerous precedent and should be approached with caution.
Passages or parts of a work should not be taken out of context. Questionable content should be judged as to whether it is gratuitous or essential to the work as a whole. If necessary, the general acceptance of the material should be checked by consulting standard evaluation aids and local holdings in other schools.



Citizen’s Request for Reconsideration of Library Materials
(Please attach extra pages if needed to complete the statements.)
Author, composer, producer, artist, etc.
_
Title_
Publisher (if known)
Request initiated by:
_Name
Phone Number Address_
Complainant represents Self; other (please list)
1. To what in the work do you object? Please be specific, cite exact parts.


2. What of value is there in this work?


3. What do you feel might be the result of using this material?

4. For what age group would you recommend this work?­­­­­­­­­_

5. Did you read, view, or listen to the entire work? If not, what pages or section?

6. Are you aware of the judgment of this work by critics?
7. Are you aware of the teacher’s purpose in using this work?
8. What do you believe is the theme or purpose of this work?

9. What do you prefer the school to do about this work?

_Do not assign or recommend it to my child.
_Withdraw it from all students
_Send it back to the proper department or grade level for re-evaluation
10. In its place, what work of equal value would you recommend that would convey as valuable a picture and perspective of a society or set of values?



Signature of Complainant Date _

Paradigm High Book Review Committee
Emilee McCoy-Chairperson emccoy@paradigmhigh.org

Chris Johnson chrisjohnson@paradigmhigh.org

Troy Henke thenke@paradigmhigh.org leadership teacher
Victoria Hatch vhatch@paradigmhigh.org leadership/government teacher
Keri Tolboe ktolboe@paradigmhigh.org leadership teacher
Toby Simmons tsimmons@paradigmhigh.org latin teacher
Sean Fletcher sfletcher@paradigmhigh.org astronomy teacher
Sarah Braden sbraden@paradigmhigh.org science teacher
Joe Jensen jjensen@paradigmhigh.org music teacher
Bonnie Jones bjones@paradigmhigh.org english teacher
Debbie Lee dblee@paradigmhigh.org special ed
Lemuel Harsh IV lharsh4@paradigmhigh.org leadership
Chareine Barker cbarker@paradigmhigh.org Library Assistant
Heidi Higgins-Schlegl hhiggins@paradigmhigh.org world history teacher
Rick Macy rmacy@paradigmhigh.org drama teacher



Weeding
WEEDING GUIDELINES

Physical Condition:
· Antiquated appearance that would discourage use
· Discolored, brittle, mutilated, warped or extensively damaged (unable to be rebound
· Sound reproduction inferior

Format:

· Print too small for general use or age level
· Poor quality illustrations
· Inappropriate for grade levels the school serves

Content:

· Obsolete: areas to watch carefully include computers, science, medicine, health, technology, geography, travel, and transportation
· Poor writing
· Inaccurate or false information
· Superseded edition
· No longer on standard list (for example, Jr. High School Catalog)

Inappropriate For Specific Collection:

· Unneeded duplication
· Unneeded titles in little used subject areas (retain basic titles)
· Changes in curriculum and/or age group served
· Interest or reading level inappropriate for school
· Superfluous media on subjects of little interest to library clientele
· Insufficient use (must never be the sole governing factor in weeding)
Classes of Media That Particularly Lend Themselves To Weeding Consideration:
· Media with inaccurate or unfair interpretations (consult subject specialists when in doubt)
· Almanacs and Yearbooks
· Popular fiction of ephemeral value
· Media containing racial, cultural, or sexual stereotyping


Specific Guides to Weeding

000 Generalities Value determined by use. Works on computers are dated after three years.

Bibliographies Seldom of use after ten years.

Library and Information Science Should conform to current, acceptable practice.

100 Ethics Value determined by use. Most unscholarly works are useless after ten years.

Philosophy/ Psychology Weed titles no longer of interest, superseded books about systems
of philosophy, out-of- date psychologies.

200 Religion Value determined by use.

300 Social Sciences Discard outdated social issues which are not of historical value.

320 Political Science Information dates quickly. Books on historical aspects kept according to need.

340 Law Replace as soon as more current material is available.

350 Government Dated after ten years. Replace superseded volumes.

360 Social Problems and Services Depends on use. Most non-historical materials should be weeded after ten years.

370 Education Keep historical materials if they will be used. Replace non-historical materials in ten years. Weed discredited theories of education. Discard career materials after five years.

380 Commerce Weed after ten years except for historical materials.

390 Customs and Folklore Keep standard works. Weed according to use.

400 Language Discard old grammars. Keep basic materials. Weed other materials according to use.

500 Pure Science Examine closely anything over five years old, except for botany and natural history. Discard obsolete information and theories.

600 Technology (Applied
Science) Most material is outdated after five-to-ten years. Give special attention to those dealing with drugs, space technology, sex education, radio, television, medicine. Check to see if resources contain information of historical value.

700 The Arts Keep basic works in music, art. Replace with better illustrations. Keep stamp and coin catalogs up-to-date. Discard and replace sports and
recreational materials as interests change.

800 Literature Keep literary criticism and history until superseded by more authoritative works. Keep works by local authors. Be aware of titles indexed in standard reference indexes.

900 History Weeding depends on use, demand, accuracy of information, and fairness of interpretation. Weed superseded histories.

Travel Weed travelogues after ten years unless of historical value.

Biography Discard when demand wanes, unless subject has permanent interest or importance.

Fiction, Easy, Story Collections Weed old-fashioned, dated titles not circulated in three-to-five years. "Classics" to be replaced as new, more attractive editions are made available.

Reference Use same criteria as for general nonfiction works. Keep standard works. Special attention must be given to having up-to-date, accurate information.

Encyclopedias-General Dated after five years.

Encyclopedias-Subject Specific Replace as content becomes invalid.

Almanacs, Yearbooks, and Statistical Publications
Superseded by each new volume. Keep three-to-five years for teaching purposes. Science yearbooks require consideration because of special articles.

Atlases Dated after five years.

Periodicals Discard after two years, unless indexed. Consider storage space. If indexed, keep no longer than oldest index or five- to-eight years, depending on use.

Newspapers Non-indexed titles keep one week.

Vertical and Pamphlet Files Keep only current information not found elsewhere.

Picture Files Weed dated, unaesthetic, and physically damaged prints.

Maps and Globes Check for currency, accuracy, and metrication.

Professional Library Most materials are inappropriate after eight-to-ten years. Weed items which no longer support the curriculum.

Textbooks, Teacher Manuals, and Workbooks
Keep only single cataloged copies of recent textbooks. Weed outdated
teacher manuals. No "consumable" workbooks should be housed in the
library media center.



What NOT To Weed:
· The "classics", award winners, and those items which appear on standard, current core bibliographies
· State and local materials
· Annuals and other school publications
· Materials published by or about the school which might be considered
· Items incorrectly classified or poorly promoted which might circulate with proper handling and promotion
· Dictionaries (especially unabridged), biographical sources, expensive geographic sources
· Media useful for term papers using a historical approach (high school)
· Media listed in current editions of the appropriate standard catalogs: Senior High School Catalog or Fiction Catalog

Weeding Schedule (see *When to Weed below)
Any routine task is accomplished more efficiently if a rotation schedule is established. The following schedule allows for the systematic weeding over a five-year period.

Year 1 800, 900
Year 2 Fiction
Year 3 000, 100, 200, 400, 700
Year 4 300, Biography
Year 5 500, 600, Reference

Use a similar schedule for non-print items

Age Considerations

Obsolescence occurs much more rapidly in some subject areas than in others. Some, such as mythology, are timeless; others, such as technology, change frequently. The following is a general guideline only:

000 3 years 600 5 years
100 5 years 700 10 years
200 10 years 800 10 years
300 5 years 900 10 years
400 10 years 920 10 years

Biography—10 years
Popular fiction of an ephemeral nature—10 years
Folk tales, fairy tales—keep indefinitely
Almanacs, yearbooks and directories—3 years in reference; retain in circulating
collection if desired for 3 additional years
Encyclopedias—7 years
General reference books—evaluate on an individual basis
Periodicals—5 years: consider usage, storage space available, whether material is available in another format, whether valuable for research
Equipment—evaluate on individual basis: consider condition, whether repairable, cost to maintain, outdated, or use.

(Source: Paula J. Zsiray, Mountain Crest High School, Cache County, Utah)

*When to Weed

The time to weed can best be determined by the library media specialist in the school. Often, weeding is related to the inventory of the collection, since this is one opportunity where consideration is given to the library media center resources. Only the library media specialist, who knows the school program and the collection, can make the decision.

A. Continuously

This involves weeding on a day-to-day basis as materials are carded and
shelved.

B. Intermittently

1. May be done in conjunction with a "rolling inventory".

2. Specific sections are identified as requiring weeding.


C. Periodically, a part of or an entire day is allocated to weeding

1. Involve the teaching staff.

2. Library media specialist makes final decision.

3. Address the entire collection.




WEEDING AND DISCARDING LIBRARY MATERIALS


  1. The library media specialists are responsible for weeding the collection.

  1. The discarded materials will be offered to teachers in the school for classroom and school use only

  1. To discard a book, do the following:
· Remove or mark through barcode
· Mark through any Paradigm High School markings
· Take off call number
· Take off pocket
· Delete computer record

  1. Box all materials not wanted by the teachers in the school or other district school library media centers.

Paradigm High
Library Media Center
Copyright Policy


Copyright Policies
The Federal copyright law governs the duplication, distribution, use and display or performance
of all copyrighted materials, including printed matter, audiovisual materials, television programs,
computer software and the Internet. Violation of the law can subject the violator to legal action
by the copyright holder resulting in the levying of fines and/or compensatory damages. Nonprofit
status or public ownership does not provide a haven for the law; and public schools are subject to
its provisions just as are other agencies and businesses. However, there are exemptions which
provide some latitude for the use of copyrighted materials for instructional purposes under the
doctrine known as "fair use." These exemptions, while helpful in facilitating instructions, do not
apply for non-instructional purposes such as reward or motivation.
• The school staff shall abide by all provisions of the copyright laws.
• Commercial materials, whether printed or non-printed, may not be duplicated without prior written
permission from the owner or copyright holder.
• The School Board does not sanction or condone illegal duplication in any form, the use of illegally
duplicated materials or the improper use of commercially duplicated materials.
• Copyrighted tests and answers are not to be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanic, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system.
• Procedures and guidelines for the legal duplication of materials for instructional purposes may be obtained
from the school or district office.
• Employees who willfully infringe upon current copyright laws may be subject to disciplinary action by the
school board.

Computer Use Policy
Computers in the School Library Media Center are for research and completing school assignments and some personal use. The School Library Media Center adheres to the polices at Paradigm High
Students who are researching school subjects have priority over students who are using the computers for personal use.


Q and A About Copyright Issues

The answers to these copyright questions are based upon the opinions of experts in the copyright area whose writings have been reviewed for this publication. This may be used as a discussion-starter at a teacher in-service about copyright use and abuse.

Q. May a teacher make a transparency from a book?
A. Yes, this falls within the guidelines of single copying for classroom use.
Q. Can a teacher duplicate materials and put them on reserve at the library?
A. Yes, if the copying is spontaneous and if copying falls under guidelines for education or classroom use of books and periodicals or is a fair use.
Q. A teacher finds an O. Henry short story that would fit into a unit to be taught next week. Can multiple copies be made for the class?
A. Yes, since it was at the inspiration of the teacher and also meets the criteria of
brevity. The copies can’t be used next term.

Q. Can a teacher make copies from a workbook?
A. No, workbooks are consumable materials and can’t be copied.
Q. Some materials are marked as follows: “All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.” Can this material still be copied for education purposes?
A. Yes, fair use may still apply.
Q. A teacher ran across a book that has no copyright notice. Can copying be done freely in this instance?
A. No one can be certain that work is in the public domain unless a notice states that reproduction is permitted. When in doubt about copyright status, ask for permission to copy or contact the Copyright Office.
Q. How strict are the Guidelines For Classroom Copying?
A. The purpose of the guidelines is to state the minimum and not the maximum standards of educational fair use. There may be instances where copying doesn’t fall within the guidelines but is permissible under the criteria of fair use.
Board Policy Copyright Questions and Answers

Q. A teacher is making a multimedia presentation and wants to use several popular songs as background. Is this allowed?
A. Using portions of songs (less than a performable unit) is probably allowed; however, using an entire song is not.
Q. The music teacher has changed the lyrics of a song to be presented at the Spring Banquet in order to be more contemporary. Can 30 copies be made for the choir?
A. No, altering or adding lyrics changes the fundamental character of a work and is not allowed under the copyright guidelines.
Q. Several students forgot their music the night of the band performance. Can copies be made just for use that night?
A. Yes, emergency copying to replace purchased copies is allowed. The duplicates must be replaced by the originals.

Q. Can a school tape a movie off-air and use it in the classroom?
A. Yes, if a teacher specifically requests the copy be made, a notice of copyright is included, it is shown to students within 10 days, it is erased within 45 days, and it is used for instructional rather than entertainment purposes.
Q. Can a teacher tape a movie at home and show it in a class?
A. Yes, following the guidelines in the previous answer.
Q. Can a media specialist videotape a program that the science teacher may want to use in class?
A. Not really. According to the guidelines, the teacher must request that a specific program be videotaped.
Q. Can a teacher show a Disney video cartoon or animated feature during a rainy recess?
A. No, the videotape must be used for instructional, not entertainment purposes.
Q. Can the school show a group of parents and students a recently televised program on drugs?
A. Probably not. The presence of parents constitutes a public performance.
Q. Can a program taped off-air be transmitted to several classrooms via closed circuit?
A. Probably. Closed circuit may be considered similar to a face-to-face teaching situation. The question comes in when the transmission is from one building to another.
Q. Can you use a videotape in a class if it was rented at a video store?
A. Probably. The question arises if showing a video to a group of students constitutes a public performance. The experts differ. You can probably show the videotape if it is for instructional, not entertainment purposes.
Q. Can you make a copy of videotape that was rented if it is used only once and within 10 days?
A. No, copying an entire work that you do not have permission to copy is a violation of the copyright law. Also, this instance of copying would be in lieu of a purchase or rental and is not allowed.
Q. Our school has limited funds, can we make 10 copies of a program to check out from the media center for just a two-week period?
A. No. You purchased one copy, not the right to make additional copies.
Q. Once the shrink-wrap is broken, is the school bound by the restrictions on the label?
A. This is a gray area. Whether the restrictions/warnings are binding will have to be decided in the courts.
Q. Can a teacher change the language of a computer program?
A. Yes, the program may be adapted.
Q. Can a single-license computer program be loaded into six computers so that six students can use it at the same time during class?
A. No. That is a simultaneous use of the software and is more than likely a violation. Copies are being made when the program is in the computer memory.
Q. Can you make a copy of a software program so that it can be used at home and at school?
A. One copy may be made of software that you own, and that is the back-up copy. Some software licensing agreements allow you to make one copy for the home—check the wording on the license.
Q. Can a student copy graphics from the Internet for a multimedia project?
A. Yes, if the portions copied fall under the Multimedia Guidelines and if the project is presented to audiences under the circumstances outlined in the Guidelines.
Q. Can a teacher show student multimedia presentations at a national conference if graphics, sound, or movies were borrowed?
A. Probably not. Students used/copied multimedia according to the guidelines for a school project. The same guidelines can’t be re-interpreted to allow for a public
display.

Q. Can information freely available on the Internet be used for student projects?
A. Information on the Internet is copyrighted even if there is no copyright statement.
Follow the Multimedia Guidelines, DMCA, and Fair Use Guidelines.

Purchasing Videos/DVDs to Show in the Classroom

  1. Videos must be related to instruction. Please, when possible, correlate with Standard and Objective from your core curriculum.

  1. Check to see if the district media center has your video.

  1. Research your video/DVD on the internet. Find out information such as publisher, cost, shipping and handling costs, etc. You will need all this information in order to order the video/DVD.

  1. Preview the video. Videos must be rated “G” or “PG.” Reminder: “PG” videos need a signed permission slip from parents in order to view.

  1. Talk about the video and get permission to purchase from your department chairman.

  1. Okay the purchase with Mr. Odom.

  1. Come to the library, and we will help you order your video.


I have some video/DVD catalogs that might be helpful to you, if you cannot find information on the internet.

Checklist to Purchase Videos/DVDs to Show in the Classroom

  1. Standard and Objective from your core curriculum this video/DVD supports:



  1. The district media center has this video: YES NO

  1. Video/DVD information:

Title:

Publisher:

Cost:

Shipping and Handling:

  1. I have previewed this video/DVD: YES NO

  1. Rating of this video: G PG

  1. Permission from department chairman

  1. Permission from principal

Come to the library, and we will help you order your video!

Paradigm High
Internet and Computer Policy


Computers in the School Library Media Center are for research and completing school assignments and some personal use.

The School Library Media Center adheres to the Paradigm High School computer use policy.

Students who are researching school subjects have priority over students who are using the computers for personal use.

All computer use infractions are submitted to the administration. Students who do not follow school or library policies will have their computer access taken away, a letter sent home to parents indicating the infraction and appropriate administrative action taken.

Rules for Use of the Library Media Center Computers

If you have not signed an acceptable use form
DO NOT ASK to use the media center computers.

Computers are for educational purposes only. You will be asked to identify your project or assignment when working with the Internet. Computers are not for playing games during school hours.

Out of class users must have a library pass from a teacher.

THE LIBRARY MEDIA CENTER STAFF RESERVES THE RIGHT TO LIMIT ACCESS TO THE COMPUTERS AT ANY TIME. THIS MAY ENTAIL CLOSING THE COMPUTERS DOWN DURING EARLY AND AFTER SCHOOL OPERATION HOURS AND LUNCH HOURS, IF NECESSARY.
RATIONALE FOR PRINT VERSUS INTERNET SOURCES

In Libraries
  • librarians develop plans and use specific criteria to add materials to the library
  • librarians try to purchase only high quality, reviewed materials (reliable information)
  • each item added is carefully cataloged or recorded in the online catalog
  • the size of a library is determined by its budget and physical space limits.
  • print sources verify internet sources
On the Internet
  • almost anyone can add anything to the Internet at anytime
  • no one makes plans for the whole Internet and how it will look or grow
  • many Internet resources are poorly indexed or not indexed at all
  • the Internet is growing faster than anyone could imagine!
  • most information is on an adult reading level
Reference: http://library.weber.edu/ref/guides/howto/evaluateinfo.cfm



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“Schools with well-developed library media programs average 10-15% / 18% higher reading scores. Well-developed programs are indicated by staffing level, collection size and age, and expenditure.” *

*How School Librarians Help Kids Achieve Standards; The Second Colorado Study.

LIBRARY BILL OF RIGHTS

I. Books and other library resources should be provided for the interest, information, and enlightenment of all people of the community the library serves. Materials should not be excluded because of the origin, background, or views of those contributing to their creation.
II. Libraries should provide materials and information presenting all points of view on current and historical issues. Materials should not be proscribed or removed because of partisan or doctrinal disapproval.
III. Libraries should challenge censorship in the fulfillment of their responsibility to provide information and enlightenment.
IV. Libraries should cooperate with all persons and groups concerned with resisting abridgment of free expression and free access to ideas.
V. A person’s right to use a library should not be denied or abridged because of origin, age, background, or views.
VI. Libraries which make exhibit spaces and meeting rooms available to the public they serve should make such facilities available on an equitable basis, regardless of the beliefs or affiliations of individuals or groups requesting their use.


Adopted June 18, 1948.
Amended February 2, 1961, and January 23, 1980,
inclusion of “age” reaffirmed January 23, 1996,
by the ALA Council.





http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/statementspols/statementsif/librarybillrights.htm



THE FREEDOM TO READ STATEMENT
The freedom to read is essential to our democracy. It is continuously under attack. Private groups and public authorities in various parts of the country are working to remove or limit access to reading materials, to censor content in schools, to label "controversial" views, to distribute lists of "objectionable" books or authors, and to purge libraries. These actions apparently rise from a view that our national tradition of free expression is no longer valid; that censorship and suppression are needed to counter threats to safety or national security, as well as to avoid the subversion of politics and the corruption of morals. We, as individuals devoted to reading and as librarians and publishers responsible for disseminating ideas, wish to assert the public interest in the preservation of the freedom to read.
Most attempts at suppression rest on a denial of the fundamental premise of democracy: that the ordinary individual, by exercising critical judgment, will select the good and reject the bad. We trust Americans to recognize propaganda and misinformation, and to make their own decisions about what they read and believe. We do not believe they are prepared to sacrifice their heritage of a free press in order to be "protected" against what others think may be bad for them. We believe they still favor free enterprise in ideas and expression.
These efforts at suppression are related to a larger pattern of pressures being brought against education, the press, art and images, films, broadcast media, and the Internet. The problem is not only one of actual censorship. The shadow of fear cast by these pressures leads, we suspect, to an even larger voluntary curtailment of expression by those who seek to avoid controversy or unwelcome scrutiny by government officials.
Such pressure toward conformity is perhaps natural to a time of accelerated change. And yet suppression is never more dangerous than in such a time of social tension. Freedom has given the United States the elasticity to endure strain. Freedom keeps open the path of novel and creative solutions, and enables change to come by choice. Every silencing of a heresy, every enforcement of an orthodoxy, diminishes the toughness and resilience of our society and leaves it the less able to deal with controversy and difference.
Now as always in our history, reading is among our greatest freedoms. The freedom to read and write is almost the only means for making generally available ideas or manners of expression that can initially command only a small audience. The written word is the natural medium for the new idea and the untried voice from which come the original contributions to social growth. It is essential to the extended discussion that serious thought requires, and to the accumulation of knowledge and ideas into organized collections.
We believe that free communication is essential to the preservation of a free society and a creative culture. We believe that these pressures toward conformity present the danger of limiting the range and variety of inquiry and expression on which our democracy and our culture depend. We believe that every American community must jealously guard the freedom to publish and to circulate, in order to preserve its own freedom to read. We believe that publishers and librarians have a profound responsibility to give validity to that freedom to read by making it possible for the readers to choose freely from a variety of offerings.
The freedom to read is guaranteed by the Constitution. Those with faith in free people will stand firm on these constitutional guarantees of essential rights and will exercise the responsibilities that accompany these rights.
We therefore affirm these propositions:
1.
It is in the public interest for publishers and librarians to make available the widest diversity of views and expressions, including those that are unorthodox, unpopular, or considered dangerous by the majority.
Creative thought is by definition new, and what is new is different. The bearer of every new thought is a rebel until that idea is refined and tested. Totalitarian systems attempt to maintain themselves in power by the ruthless suppression of any concept that challenges the established orthodoxy. The power of a democratic system to adapt to change is vastly strengthened by the freedom of its citizens to choose widely from among conflicting opinions offered freely to them. To stifle every nonconformist idea at birth would mark the end of the democratic process. Furthermore, only through the constant activity of weighing and selecting can the democratic mind attain the strength demanded by times like these. We need to know not only what we believe but why we believe it.
2.
Publishers, librarians, and booksellers do not need to endorse every idea or presentation they make available. It would conflict with the public interest for them to establish their own political, moral, or aesthetic views as a standard for determining what should be published or circulated.
Publishers and librarians serve the educational process by helping to make available knowledge and ideas required for the growth of the mind and the increase of learning. They do not foster education by imposing as mentors the patterns of their own thought. The people should have the freedom to read and consider a broader range of ideas than those that may be held by any single librarian or publisher or government or church. It is wrong that what one can read should be confined to what another thinks proper.
3.
It is contrary to the public interest for publishers or librarians to bar access to writings on the basis of the personal history or political affiliations of the author.
No art or literature can flourish if it is to be measured by the political views or private lives of its creators. No society of free people can flourish that draws up lists of writers to whom it will not listen, whatever they may have to say.
4.
There is no place in our society for efforts to coerce the taste of others, to confine adults to the reading matter deemed suitable for adolescents, or to inhibit the efforts of writers to achieve artistic expression.
To some, much of modern expression is shocking. But is not much of life itself shocking? We cut off literature at the source if we prevent writers from dealing with the stuff of life. Parents and teachers have a responsibility to prepare the young to meet the diversity of experiences in life to which they will be exposed, as they have a responsibility to help them learn to think critically for themselves. These are affirmative responsibilities, not to be discharged simply by preventing them from reading works for which they are not yet prepared. In these matters values differ, and values cannot be legislated; nor can machinery be devised that will suit the demands of one group without limiting the freedom of others.
5.
It is not in the public interest to force a reader to accept the prejudgment of a label characterizing any expression or its author as subversive or dangerous.
The ideal of labeling presupposes the existence of individuals or groups with wisdom to determine by authority what is good or bad for others. It presupposes that individuals must be directed in making up their minds about the ideas they examine. But Americans do not need others to do their thinking for them.
6.
It is the responsibility of publishers and librarians, as guardians of the people's freedom to read, to contest encroachments upon that freedom by individuals or groups seeking to impose their own standards or tastes upon the community at large; and by the government whenever it seeks to reduce or deny public access to public information.
It is inevitable in the give and take of the democratic process that the political, the moral, or the aesthetic concepts of an individual or group will occasionally collide with those of another individual or group. In a free society individuals are free to determine for themselves what they wish to read, and each group is free to determine what it will recommend to its freely associated members. But no group has the right to take the law into its own hands, and to impose its own concept of politics or morality upon other members of a democratic society. Freedom is no freedom if it is accorded only to the accepted and the inoffensive. Further, democratic societies are more safe, free, and creative when the free flow of public information is not restricted by governmental prerogative or self-censorship.
7.
It is the responsibility of publishers and librarians to give full meaning to the freedom to read by providing books that enrich the quality and diversity of thought and expression. By the exercise of this affirmative responsibility, they can demonstrate that the answer to a "bad" book is a good one, the answer to a "bad" idea is a good one.
The freedom to read is of little consequence when the reader cannot obtain matter fit for that reader's purpose. What is needed is not only the absence of restraint, but the positive provision of opportunity for the people to read the best that has been thought and said. Books are the major channel by which the intellectual inheritance is handed down, and the principal means of its testing and growth. The defense of the freedom to read requires of all publishers and librarians the utmost of their faculties, and deserves of all Americans the fullest of their support.
We state these propositions neither lightly nor as easy generalizations. We here stake out a lofty claim for the value of the written word. We do so because we believe that it is possessed of enormous variety and usefulness, worthy of cherishing and keeping free. We realize that the application of these propositions may mean the dissemination of ideas and manners of expression that are repugnant to many persons. We do not state these propositions in the comfortable belief that what people read is unimportant. We believe rather that what people read is deeply important; that ideas can be dangerous; but that the suppression of ideas is fatal to a democratic society. Freedom itself is a dangerous way of life, but it is ours.

----

This statement was originally issued in May of 1953 by the Westchester Conference of the American Library Association and the American Book Publishers Council, which in 1970 consolidated with the American Educational Publishers Institute to become the Association of American Publishers.
Adopted June 25, 1953; revised January 28, 1972, January 16, 1991, July 12, 2000, June 30, 2004, by the ALA Council and the AAP Freedom to Read Committee.
A Joint Statement by:

American Library Association
Association of American Publishers

http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/statementspols/ftrstatement/freedomreadstatement.htm



FREEDOM TO VIEW STATEMENT
The FREEDOM TO VIEW, along with the freedom to speak, to hear, and to read, is protected by the
First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States.__ In a free society, there is no place for censorship of any medium of expression. Therefore these principles are affirmed:
1. To provide the broadest access to film, video, and other audiovisual materials because they are a means for the communication of ideas. Liberty of circulation is essential to insure the constitutional guarantees of freedom of expression.
2. To protect the confidentiality of all individuals and institutions using film, video, and other audiovisual materials.
3. To provide film, video, and other audiovisual materials which represent a diversity of views and expression. Selection of a work does not constitute or imply agreement with or approval of the content.
4. To provide a diversity of viewpoints without the constraint of labeling or prejudging film, video, or other audiovisual materials on the basis of the moral, religious, or political beliefs of the producer or filmmaker or on the basis of controversial content.
5. To contest vigorously, by all lawful means, every encroachment upon the public's freedom to view.
This statement was originally drafted by the Freedom to View Committee of the American Film and Video Association (formerly the Educational Film Library Association) and was adopted by the AFVA Board of Directors in February 1979. This statement was updated and approved by the AFVA Board of Directors in 1989.

Endorsed by the ALA Council January 10, 1990





http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/statementspols/ftvstatement/freedomviewstatement.htm

http://www.ala.org/oif.html







Intellectual Freedom and Censorship Q & A

| What is Intellectual Freedom? | Why is Intellectual Freedom Important? | What is Censorship? __|__ How Does Censorship Happen? | Who Attempts Censorship? | What is the Relationship Between Censorship and Intellectual Freedom? | How Do Censors Justify Their Demands that Information Be Suppressed? | What Are the Most Frequently Censored Materials? | Aren't There Some Kinds of Expression that Really Should Be Censored? | What Is Obscenity? | What about Protecting Children from Pornography, Whether or Not It Is Legally Obscene? | How Do You Guide Children When You Can't Be with Them 24 Hours A Day? | Don't Librarians Censor Everything They Choose Not to Buy for the Library? | What If I Can't Find Something in My Library that Represents My Point of View? | If Materials are on a Library Shelf, Doesn't That Mean the Library Approves of Those Materials? | What Can I Do to Fight Censorship? |


“If all mankind minus one were of one opinion, and only one person were of the contrary opinion, mankind would be no more justified in silencing that one person, than he, if he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind.”— John Stuart Mill, On Liberty

“He that would make his own liberty secure, must guard even his enemy from opposition: for if he violates this duty he establishes a precedent that will reach to himself. ”— Thomas Paine, Dissertation On First Principles Of Government

What Is Intellectual Freedom?
|Top|Bottom|
Intellectual freedom is the right of every individual to both seek and receive information from all points of view without restriction. It provides for free access to all expressions of ideas through which any and all sides of a question, cause or movement may be explored.

Why Is Intellectual Freedom Important?
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Intellectual freedom is the basis for our democratic system. We expect our people to be self-governors. But to do so responsibly, our citizenry must be well-informed. Libraries provide the ideas and information, in a variety of formats, to allow people to inform themselves.
Intellectual freedom encompasses the freedom to hold, receive and disseminate ideas.


What Is Censorship?
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Censorship is the suppression of ideas and information that certain persons—individuals, groups or government officials—find objectionable or dangerous. It is no more complicated than someone saying, “Don’t let anyone read this book, or buy that magazine, or view that film, because I object to it! ” Censors try to use the power of the state to impose their view of what is truthful and appropriate, or offensive and objectionable, on everyone else. Censors pressure public institutions, like libraries, to suppress and remove from public access information they judge inappropriate or dangerous, so that no one else has the chance to read or view the material and make up their own minds about it. The censor wants to prejudge materials for everyone.

How Does Censorship Happen?
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Censorship occurs when expressive materials, like books, magazines, films and videos, or works of art, are removed or kept from public access. Individuals and pressure groups identify materials to which they object. Sometimes they succeed in pressuring schools not to use them, libraries not to shelve them, book and video stores not to carry them, publishers not to publish them, or art galleries not to display them. Censorship also occurs when materials are restricted to particular audiences, based on their age or other characteristics.

Who Attempts Censorship?
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In most instances, a censor is a sincerely concerned individual who believes that censorship can improve society, protect children, and restore what the censor sees as lost moral values. But under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, each of us has the right to read, view, listen to, and disseminate constitutionally protected ideas, even if a censor finds those ideas offensive.

What Is The Relationship Between Censorship And Intellectual Freedom?
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In expressing their opinions and concerns, would-be censors are exercising the same rights librarians seek to protect when they confront censorship. In making their criticisms known, people who object to certain ideas are exercising the same rights as those who created and disseminated the material to which they object. Their rights to voice opinions and try to persuade others to adopt those opinions is protected only if the rights of persons to express ideas they despise are also protected. The rights of both sides must be protected, or neither will survive.

How Do Censors Justify Their Demands That Information Be Suppressed?
|Top|Bottom|
Censors might sincerely believe that certain materials are so offensive, or present ideas that are so hateful and destructive to society, that they simply must not see the light of day. Others are worried that younger or weaker people will be badly influenced by bad ideas, and will do bad things as a result. Still others believe that there is a very clear distinction between ideas that are right and morally uplifting, and ideas that are wrong and morally corrupting, and wish to ensure that society has the benefit of their perception. They believe that certain individuals, certain institutions, even society itself, will be endangered if particular ideas are disseminated without restriction. What censors often don’t consider is that, if they succeed in suppressing the ideas they don’t like today, others may use that precedent to suppress the ideas they do like tomorrow.

What Are The Most Frequently Censored Materials?
|Top|Bottom|
Throughout history, books have been challenged for many reasons, including political content, sexual expression, or language offensive to some people’s racial, cultural, or ethnic background, gender or sexuality, or political or religious beliefs. Materials considered heretical, blasphemous, seditious, obscene or inappropriate for children have often been censored.
Since the dawn of recorded human expression, people have been burned at the stake, forced to drink poison, crucified, ostracized and vilified for what they wrote and believed.


Aren’t There Some Kinds Of Expression That Really Should Be Censored?
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The United States Supreme Court has ruled that there are certain narrow categories of speech that are not protected by the First Amendment: obscenity, child pornography, defamation, and “fighting words,” or speech that incites immediate and imminent lawless action. The government is also allowed to enforce secrecy of some information when it is considered essential to national security, like troop movements in time of war, classified information about defense, etc.

What Is Obscenity?
|Top|Bottom|
Sexual expression is a frequent target of censorship. But the Supreme Court has told us that material is not obscene unless a judge or jury finds that an average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find that the material appeals to the prurient (or morbid, shameful, and unhealthy) interest in sex (note that, by its definition, the Court implicitly recognized that there is such a thing as a healthy interest in sex!); that it depicts or describes certain sexual acts defined in state law in a patently offensive way; and that a reasonable person (community standards do not control this last element) would find that the material lacks serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value. All three elements must be present for material to be judged by a judge or jury as obscene and, therefore, illegal.

What About Protecting Children From Pornography, Whether Or Not It Is Legally Obscene?
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The primary responsibility for rearing children rests with parents. If parents want to keep certain ideas or forms of expression away from their children, they must assume the responsibility for shielding those children. Governmental institutions cannot be expected to usurp or interfere with parental obligations and responsibilities when it comes to deciding what a child may read or view.

How Do You Guide Children When You Can’t Be With Them 24 Hours A Day?
|Top|Bottom|
Parents who believe that the current state of society and communications make it difficult to shield their children must nevertheless find a way to cope with what they see as that reality within the context of their own family. Libraries can be extremely helpful, providing information about parenting, open communication between parents and children, how to communicate with caregivers and the parents of your children’s friends about your rules, and the opinions of various organizations representing a wide spectrum of points of view about materials for children.
If a child borrows something from a library which that child’s parent believes is inappropriate, the parents are encouraged to return the item and make use of the expertise of their librarian to locate materials they prefer, among the hundreds of thousands of choices most public libraries make available.


Don’t Librarians Censor Everything They Choose Not To Buy For The Library?
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No library can make everything available, and selection decisions must be made. Selection is an inclusive process, where the library affirmatively seeks out materials which will serve its mission of providing a broad diversity of points of view and subject matter. By contrast, censorship is an exclusive process, by which individuals or institutions seek to deny access to or otherwise suppress ideas and information because they find those ideas offensive and do not want others to have access to them. There are many objective reasons unrelated to the ideas expressed in materials that a library might decide not to add those materials to its collection: redundancy, lack of community interest, expense, space, etc. Unless the decision is based on a disapproval of the ideas expressed and desire to keep those ideas away from public access, a decision not to select materials for a library collection is not censorship.

What If I Can’t Find Something In My Library That Represents My Point Of View?
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Ask for the materials you want. Libraries strive to serve the interests of the entire community. If your library is unable to purchase the material you want, it may be able to obtain it for you on interlibrary loan. Your library is there to help you find the information you need or want.

If Materials Are On A Library Shelf, Doesn’t That Mean The Library Approves Of Those Materials?
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The presence of any particular materials in a library collection does not imply endorsement of the ideas expressed in those materials. The library is simply doing its job as a neutral provider of information from all points of view—if the library “endorses” anything, it is your right to have access to a broad selection of materials. If you don’t find materials to your liking, ask your librarian to help you!

What Can I Do To Fight Censorship?
|Top|Bottom|
Stay informed. Know what is happening in your state legislature, local school and library boards, and city councils. Write letters expressing your view to your mayor, and your state and federal representatives and senators. Attend your local school and library board meetings.



























First Amendment of the Bill of Rights
to the United States Constitution

**First Amendment Advocates**First Amendment ResourcesNotable First Amendment Court Cases


| Selected U.S. Supreme Court Decisions | Findlaw First Amendment Annotations Expanded |
CONGRESS SHALL MAKE NO LAW RESPECTING AN ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIGION, OR PROHIBITING THE FREE EXERCISE THEREOF; OR ABRIDGING THE FREEDOM OF SPEECH, OR OF THE PRESS; OR THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE PEACEABLY TO ASSEMBLE, AND TO PETITION THE GOVERNMENT FOR A REDRESS OF GRIEVANCES.
The Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution was ratified on December 15, 1791
“Censorship reflects a society’s lack of confidence in itself. It is a hallmark of an authoritarian regime . . . .” — Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart, dissenting Ginzberg v. United States, 383 U.S. 463 (1966)
“The very purpose of a Bill of Rights was to withdraw certain subjects from the vicissitudes of political controversy, to place them beyond the reach of majorities and officials and to establish them as legal principles to be applied by the courts. One’s right to life, liberty, and property, to free speech, a free press, freedom of worship and assembly, and other fundamental rights may not be submitted to vote; they depend on the outcome of no elections.” — Supreme Court Justice Robert Jackson, West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, 319 U.S. 624 (1943)
“First Amendment freedoms are most in danger when the government seeks to control thought or to justify its laws for that impermissible end. The right to think is the beginning of freedom, and speech must be protected from the government because speech is the beginning of thought.”—Supreme Court Justice Anthony M. Kennedy, Ashcroft V. Free Speech Coalition
“Almost all human beings have an infinite capacity for taking things for granted.” — Aldous Huxley, author of Brave New World
“Men feared witches and burnt women. It is the function of speech to free men from the bondage of irrational fears.” — U.S. Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis (1856–1941), Whitney v. California, 274 U. S. 357 (1927)



























Libraries: An American Value
Libraries in America are cornerstones of the communities they serve. Free access to the books, ideas, resources, and information in America’s libraries is imperative for education, employment, enjoyment, and self-government.
Libraries are a legacy to each generation, offering the heritage of the past and the promise of the future. To ensure that libraries flourish and have the freedom to promote and protect the public good in the 21st century, we believe certain principles must be guaranteed.
To that end, we affirm this contract with the people we serve:

· We defend the constitutional rights of all individuals, including children and teenagers, to use the library’s resources and services;
· We value our nation’s diversity and strive to reflect that diversity by providing a full spectrum of resources and services to the communities we serve;
· We affirm the responsibility and the right of all parents and guardians to guide their own children’s use of the library and its resources and services;
· We connect people and ideas by helping each person select from and effectively use the library’s resources;
· We protect each individual’s privacy and confidentiality in the use of library resources and services;
· We protect the rights of individuals to express their opinions about library resources and services;
· We celebrate and preserve our democratic society by making available the widest possible range of viewpoints, opinions and ideas, so that all individuals have the opportunity to become lifelong learners - informed, literate, educated, and culturally enriched.
Change is constant, but these principles transcend change and endure in a dynamic technological, social, and political environment.
By embracing these principles, libraries in the United States can contribute to a future that values and protects freedom of speech in a world that celebrates both our similarities and our differences, respects individuals and their beliefs, and holds all persons truly equal and free.

Adopted February 3, 1999, by the
Council of the American Library Association